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By partnering with Bespoke Health, a pharmacogenomics-certified pharmacist can help to navigate precision medication selection.
PGx has been shown to:

Decrease the chance that you will experience side effects 

Reduce healthcare costs (by reducing Hospital/ER visits, admissions and PCP office visits)

Decrease time spent on ineffective treatments due to one-size-fits-all drug selection

Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing can be a

It's one more precision medicine tool available to aid prescribers in precise, predictable prescribing

In summary, PGx is choosing the RIGHT MEDICATION
at the RIGHT DOSE for every patient.

Pharmacogenomics  FAQ

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What are some specific examples of how my genetic makeup may affect
how I respond to medications?

Pharmacogenomics combines the science of your personal genomic profile and the science of pharmacology to understand the genetic basis of medication response. For example, your genes that code for metabolism of a certain drug may make you eliminate that drug from your body too slowly, resulting in unpleasant or toxic side effects. However, someone else may metabolize the same drug at the same dosage at a "normal" rate, and have no adverse effects as a result.  


Conversely, your genes may code for metabolism of a certain drug that makes your body eliminate that drug too quickly. This results in an ineffective therapy, because your blood levels are not high enough to be therapeutic.


In yet another different but common example of precision medicine utility, some drugs require a specific enzyme to break down the ingested drug into an active form the body can use. In this case, the initial drug is called a prodrug. If you lack the gene that codes for that enzyme's production in your body, then you will not convert the prodrug into the active form. Your body would then get no therapeutic benefit from the medication. Increasing the dose of the medication in this example compounds the problem! Accumulation of the prodrug may cause side effects while you still get no therapeutic benefit because there is still no conversion to active drug! Precision medicine can identify if your body has or lacks the genes to produce these key enzymes, and guide your medical providers in choosing the correct therapy. 

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What evidence-based guidelines are there for using PGx testing for drug selection?

The body of evidence for PGx guidelines is growing every day.


Bespoke Health utilizes guidelines from CPIC (Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium) and PharmGKB, trusted experts in the field of pharmacogenomics. 

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How does the process of PGx testing work?

A genetic sample of your DNA (from a cheek swab) will be analyzed by a laboratory. Your gene variants are then translated to a genetic phenotype, which helps a pharmacogenomics-certified pharmacist at Bespoke Health decipher how you will metabolize medications differently than other people without your particular genetic variant.


If there is an actionable finding, the pharmacist consults with your prescriber to suggest changing your current drug or dose, or proactively suggesting a drug and dose to start treating a new condition. If you do not have a health condition that needs to be treated, PGx information can be retained for future use- your gene variants (from germline genetic mutations) are inherited and do not change over time. 

PGx test results give your prescribers the most innovative and powerful tools available to assist in selecting the most effective treatment, with the least likelihood of toxic side effects. 

Ongoing evaluation of your treatment via Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) with a Bespoke Health pharmacist on a periodic basis ensures that you are reaching the expected goals of all of your treatments.  This is especially important for patients on multiple medications (i.e. polypharmacy patients) or medications prescribed by multiple medical providers. 

For more information on CMM visit this website: 

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